For years, the contest between evolution and proponents of intelligent design has raged on especially on the battle fields of public schools and textbooks. Many expected the intelligent design movement to lose steam after a federal judge ruled in December 2005 that the Dover, Pa., school board’s decision to require the teaching of intelligent design in science classes was an unconstitutional violation of the separation of church and state. Instead, proponents have created more conferences, textbooks and public school debates. Meanwhile, the debate had continued in the public square.
Critics say intelligent design supporters have changed strategy since Dover. In a paper written for the Center for Inquiry, Barbara Forrest, a philosophy professor at Southeastern Louisiana University, says intelligent design proponents have shifted from insisting that the concept be taught to asking that criticism of evolution be taught. Others have said that intelligent design proponents will promote their theory on the grounds that children should be taught critical thinking. Still others predict the next battle between the two will be over academic freedom – an area Jay Wexler, a law professor at Boston University, says will be harder for the evolution camp to win because it deals with freedom of speech. Some observers say the effects of the ongoing struggle are more subtle, but still harmful. They say many science educators have avoided teaching evolution at all for fear of attracting controversy.
Why it matters
The outcome of the tug-of-war between evolution and intelligent design will affect the way science is taught to children through at least the next generation.
Creationism: In the United States, creationism usually refers to the belief that the Bible’s account of creation is literally true and accurate. That generally means Genesis 1:1-2:4a, where God creates the Earth and all its life forms in six consecutive 24-hour days less than 10,000 years ago. (Genesis also tells a second creation story, in 2:4b-24, in which man is created before the Earth’s vegetation, and specific days are not described.)
Creationism is sometimes called “Young Earth” or “creation science.” Similarly, “Old Earth Creationism” is the belief that the Earth and all its life forms were created by God, but that the “days” may have been longer than 24 hours and there may have been gaps between days. However, there are as many creation stories as there are religions. The TalkOrigins Archive includes a page that describes the variety of Christian and non-Christian views of creationism.
Evolution: The theory that all living things share a common ancestry. Evolutionists hold that the complex life forms we know today evolved from single-celled organisms over millions of years. There is also “theistic evolution,” which is the belief that God guided evolution, causing both the first life forms to appear as well as the eventual development of higher forms of life.
Darwinism: A theory of evolution developed by Charles Darwin in the 19th century. Darwinism is the theory that natural selection drives evolution: life forms that most successfully adapt are those that survive. Darwinism is not the equivalent of evolution but a theory for explaining how evolution occurred.
Intelligent design: The belief that some aspects of life forms are so complex that they must reflect the design of a conscious, rational intelligence. ID proponents do not identify the designer. Many supporters of intelligent design do not believe that life forms share a common ancestor, although some do.
Polls and surveys
- Gallup: Gallup provides polling and analysis on dozens of pressing topics in the United States, many of which involve religion. Gallup has conducted polling on evolution, creationism and intelligent design since 1982.
- National Center for Science Education: The National Center for Science Education defends the teaching of evolution. The Center tracks public opinion polling on evolution. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 510-601-7203.
Articles and publications
- “Tammy Kitzmiller et al. v. Dover Area School District”: Dec. 20, 2005, ruling by Judge E. Jones III of the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania which states that intelligent design cannot be taught in public schools.
- Intelligent Design the Future: A blog operated by The Discovery Institute's Center for Science & Culture which follows the debate over intelligent design. Contact: email@example.com.
- Evolution News and Views: A blog operated by The Discovery Institute's Center for Science & Culture which follows the debate over evolution. It provides original reporting and analysis about the debate over intelligent design and evolution, including breaking news about scientific research. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- “From Darwin to Dover: An Overview of Important Cases in the Evolution Debate”: Legal backgrounder published in 2005 by The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life on the relevant legal cases involving evolution.
- “Vital Theology” – Special Issue: Oct. 30, 2005, special issue of Vital Theology dedicated to evolution and intelligent design.
- “Bush: Schools should teach intelligent design”: Aug. 1, 2005, Associated Press story about President Bush’s support for teaching intelligent design along side evolution in public schools. It’s posted by MSNBC.
- “Kansas education board first to back ‘intelligent design'”: Nov. 8, 2005, The Washington Post story about the Kansas School Board's vote that doubts about evolution theory must be taught in the classroom.
- “Evolution wins over intelligent design”: Dec. 21, 2005, Aljazeera article about the Kitzmiller v. Dover decision made by the U.S court concerning evolution and intelligent design in public schools.
- “White House petition calls for ban of creation science, intelligent design from schools”: June 18, 2013, The Christian Post article about a petition asking the White House to ban the teaching of creationism and intelligent design in schools.
- “Stephen King on faith in God, intelligent design, and what scares him”: May 30, 2013, The Christian Post article about novelist Stephen King and his views on on intelligent design.
- “Evolution and dissent”: June 11, 2007, Boston Globe opinion piece by David K. DeWolf defending the right of academics to question evolution.
- “Springboro again considers teaching creationism”: May 23, 2013, WLWT.com article about an Ohio school district considering teaching creationism.
- “Academic freedom: Where ‘science’ is up for debate”: June 30, 2013, in-depth Mashable article about the debate over teaching creationism and intelligent design in public schools with a focus on Louisiana.
- PBS – “Faith and Reason”: PBS' "Faith and Reason" series has tackled several issues involved with the confluence of science and religion. Their website offers resources on several of the topics they have covered. The series covered evolution and creationism among its topics.
Proponents of intelligent design
- Alpha Omega Institute: The Alpha Omega Institute promotes the teaching of creationism. Contact: email@example.com, 970-523-9943.
- Answers in Genesis: Answers in Genesis is a Christian group that promotes creationism. It runs the Creation Museum in Petersburg, Ky. Contact: 859-727-2222.
- Creation Research Society: The Creation Research Society is an organization of scientists and laypeople committed to what it calls “scientific special creation.” Board members are listed on the website. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Creation Truth Foundation: The Creation Truth Foundation in Noble, Okla., promotes the Genesis story of creation. George Thomas Sharp is its founder and president. Contact: 1-888-578-7884.
- Discovery Institute: The Discovery Institute describes its mission as "to make a positive vision of the future practical." It is one of the main proponents of intelligent-design theory in education. Contact: email@example.com, 202-558-7085.
- Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness Center: The Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness (IDEA) Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting awareness of the scientific evidence that supports intelligent design. Ryan Huxley is the Center's president. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 858-337-3529.
- Intelligent Design Network: The Intelligent Design Network is a nonprofit organization that seeks to promote objectivity in origins education in public schools. Contact: IDnet@att.net, 816-797-2869.
- Institute for Creation Research: The Institute for Creation Research is a Christian-based creation ministry. Contact: 800-337-0375.
- Kolbe Center for the Study of Creation: The Kolbe Center for the Study of Creation is a Roman Catholic lay apostolate that promotes the teachings of Genesis, especially with regard to creation. It is based in Mount Jackson, Va., and directed by Hugh Owen. Contact: 540-856-8453.
- Access Research Network: Access Research Network is a nonprofit that provides information on science, technology and social issues and includes descriptions and discussions of intelligent design. Contact: 719-633-1772.
- Reasons to Believe: Reasons to Believe is a Christian ministry that supports people who want to find scientific proof of biblical events. Contact: MinistryCare@reasons.org, 626-335-1480.
Supporters of evolution
- National Evolutionary Synthesis Center: The National Evolutionary Synthesis Center is a joint project of Duke University, the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University. It works to facilitate research in the area of evolutionary biology. It is based in Durham, N.C. Allen Rodrigo is director. Contact: email@example.com, 919-668-4589.
- National Science Teachers Association: The National Science Teachers Association has made an organizational statement that recommends "emphasizing" the theory of evolution in the classroom. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 703-243-7100.
- Society for the Study of Evolution: The Society for the Study of Evolution promotes the study of organic evolution. Contact: SSE-Manager@EvolutionSociety.org, 314-577-9554 .
- National Association of Biology Teachers: The National Association of Biology Teachers promotes biology and life science education. Its members have made a statement in favor of the teaching of evolution theory. Contact: email@example.com, 703-264-9696.
- American Association for the Advancement of Science: The American Association for the Advancement of Science is a nonprofit organization that publishes the journal Science. It has issued a resolution on intelligent design, which it calls a challenge to science education. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 202-326-6400.
- National Academy of Sciences: The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private, non-profit society of distinguished scholars. Established by an Act of Congress, signed by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863, the NAS is charged with providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. The NAS offers a section with evolution resources. Contact: email@example.com, 202-334-2000.
Religion and science organizations
- Center for Islamic Sciences: The Center for Islamic Sciences is dedicated to the promotion of research and diffusion of knowledge on all aspects of Islam. CIS encourages a creative exploration of natural and human sciences from the Islamic worldview, critical integration of contemporary disciplines into the framework of traditional Islamic thought and learning, and a renewed and rigorous link with the intellectual tradition of Islam. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Metanexus Institute: The Metanexus Institute is a New York-based not-for-profit organization dedicated to promoting scientifically rigorous and philosophically open-ended explorations of foundational questions. William Grassie is the founder and executive director. Contact: email@example.com, 215-601-0035.
- Zygon Center for Religion and Science: The Zygon Center for Religion and Science is dedicated to relating religious traditions and the best scientific knowledge in order to gain insight into the origins, nature and destiny of humans and their environment. The center is based at the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 773-256-0670.
- American Scientific Affiliation: The American Scientific Affiliation is an organization of scientists who are also Christian. The group maintains no official position on the intelligent design-evolution debate but tries to strike a balance between the two. It maintains a page of papers, articles, definitions and positions on the debate. Contact: email@example.com, 978-356-5656.
- Science, Religion, and the Human Experience: Science, Religion, and the Human Experience was a program from the University of California, Santa Barbara. It ran from 2001-2003 and it studied human history through the lens of the intersection between science and religion. James D. Proctor was director. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 805-893-8741.
- Center for the Study of Science and Religion: The Center for the Study of Science and Religion at Columbia University's Earth Institute examines the idea of the natural from both scientific and religious perspectives. Robert Pollack is founder and director. Contact: email@example.com, 212-854-1673.
As science standards in public schools have been challenged, a number of citizens groups which support the teaching of evolution only have cropped up.
- Kansas Citizens for Science: Kansas Citizens for Science is a not-for-profit educational organization that advocates for science education. Harry McDonald is the president. Similar organizations exist in several other states. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com.
- Colorado Evolution Response Team: The Colorado Evolution Response Team is a group of science professionals who have organized to rebut anti-evolutionary claims. Contact: CERT@EvolutionaryGenomics.com, firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Georgia Citizens for Integrity in Science Education: Georgia Citizens for Integrity in Science Education (GCISE) is dedicated to promoting scientific literacy and excellence in science education by reaching out to teachers, students and administrators in K-12 public schools and to the general community. In 2006, it helped with a successful effort to get the Cobb County Board of Education to remove evolution disclaimer stickers from school science textbooks. Contact: email@example.com.
- Nebraska Religious Coalition for Science Education: Nebraska Religious Coalition for Science Education is a group of Nebraskans of different religious backgrounds who proclaim the compatibility of evolution and theology. Contact Chuck Austerberry. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 402-280-2154.
- Oklahomans for Excellence in Science Education: Oklahomans for Excellence in Science Education is a non-profit educational organization that promotes the education of the public about the methods and values of science and advocates excellence in the science curriculum. It was organized in 1999 when the Oklahoma State Board of Education required that stickers disclaiming the theory of evolution be inserted in science textbooks. Contact: email@example.com.
- Texas Citizens for Science: Texas Citizens for Science seeks to preserve the quality of science education in Texas public schools. Steven Schafersman is the president. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Tallahassee Scientific Society: The Tallahassee Scientific Society is a group of laypeople, scientists, engineers and educators dedicated to increasing scientific literacy in Florida's Big Bend area. Contact: email@example.com.
- Michael J. Behe: Michael J. Behe is a professor of biological sciences at Lehigh University in West Bethlehem, Pa., and author of Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution (Free Press, 1998). He is an advocate of Intelligent Design, believing that life forms share a common ancestor. He is a senior fellow at the Discovery Center for Science and Culture. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, 206-292-0401 ext.107, 610-758-3474.
- John Bloom: John Bloom is a physics professor at Biola University, a Christian school in La Mirada, Calif. He founded the school’s master’s degree program in science and religion, and he teaches a course in intelligent design that asks the question, “Why isn’t the evidence clearer?” Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- John Brockman: John Brockman is the editor and publisher of the online magazine Edge and editor of Intelligent Thought: Science Versus the Intelligent Design Movement (2006). Contact: email@example.com.
- Francis Collins: Dr. Francis Collins is director of the National Institutes of Health and former director of the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md. Collins has explained his belief in God in many press interviews and in his book, The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 301-496-0844.
- William Dembski: William Dembski is an associate research professor in the conceptual foundations of science at Baylor University, a Southern Baptist school in Waco, Texas, and a senior fellow at the Discovery Center for Science and Culture. He is author and/or editor of numerous books supporting the theory of intelligent design, including No Free Lunch: Why Specified Complexity Cannot Be Purchased Without Intelligence (Rowman and Littlefield, 2001) and Signs of Intelligence: Understanding Intelligent Design (Brazos Press, 2001). Contact: email@example.com, 254-710-4928.
- Taner Edis: Taner Edis is an assistant professor of physics at Truman State University in Kirksville, Mo., who studies issues of science and religion, particularly Islam. He is the author of An Illusion of Harmony: Science and Religion in Islam (2007) and co-editor of Why Intelligent Design Fails: A Scientific Critique of the New Creationism (2004). Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 660-785-4583.
- Ken Ham: Ken Ham is president of Answers in Genesis which operates the Creation Museum in Petersburg, Ky. Contact: 859-727-2222.
- Edward Humes: Edward Humes is a journalist and author. His books include Monkey Girl: Evolution, Education, Religion and the Battle for America's Soul (2007). He has written that there are two theories of evolution - the scientific theory and the talk radio version. Contact Beth Parker. Contact: Beth.Parker@us.penguingroup.com.
- Cornenlius Hunter: Cornelius Hunter is the author of Darwin’s God: Evolution and the Problem of Evil (2001) and Science's Blind Spot: The Unseen Religion of Scientific Naturalism (2007). He is a fellow at the Discovery Institute's Center for Science & Culture and an adjunct professor of biophysics at Biola University, a Christian school in La Mirada, Calif. He operates the website DarwinsPredictions.com. Contact Rob Crowther, director of media and public relations for the Center for Science & Culture. Contact: email@example.com.
- Edward J. Larson: Edward J. Larson is a professor of law at Pepperdine University School of Law in Malibu, Calif. He is a Pulitzer Prize-winning author of several books dealing with the controversy of evolution versus creationism, including Trial and Error: The American Controversy Over Creation and Evolution (Oxford University Press, expanded edition 2002) and Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America's Continuing Debate Over Science and Religion (Harvard University Press, 1998). Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Joshua Rosenau: Joshua Rosenau is the public information project director at the National Center for Science Education. As an evolutionary biologist in Kansas in 2005, he was involved in the fight there over science teaching standards. Rosenau comments on evolution and other science topics on his personal blog. Contact: email@example.com.
- Kenneth Miller: Kenneth Miller is a biology professor at Brown University and author of Finding Darwin's God: A Scientist's Search for Common Ground Between God and Evolution (Perennial, 2000). He felt that the debate over intelligent design and evolution was both religious and political in that ID proponents want to enlist the government to ensure their ideas are taught in public schools under the banner of First Amendment protection. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 401-863-3410.
- David Mills: David Mills is the author of Atheist Universe: The Thinking Person's Answer to Christian Fundamentalism (2006). He lives in Huntington, W.Va. Contact: email@example.com.
- Stephen Meyer: Stephen Meyer is an associate professor of philosophy at Whitworth College in Spokane, Wash. He is co-author of Intelligent Design in Public School Science Curricula: A Legal Guidebook (Foundation for Thought and Ethics, 1999) and director and senior fellow of the Center for the Renewal Science and Culture at the Discovery Institute in Seattle. Contact Rob Crowther, director of media and public relations for the Center. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 206-292-0401 ext.107.
- Jason Rosenhouse: Jason Rosenhouse is the author of Evolution Blog, a commentary on the debate between evolution and creationism. He is an assistant professor of mathematics at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Va. Contact: email@example.com, 540-568-6459.
- Eugenie Scott: Eugenie Scott is the executive director of the National Center for Science Education in Oakland, Calif. She is a longtime supporter of the teaching of evolution in the public schools and a frequent critic of intelligent design. She was co-editor of Not in Our Classrooms: Why Intelligent Design Is Wrong for Our Schools. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 510-601-7203.
- Michael Shermer: Michael Shermer is a noted atheist, the founding publisher of Skeptic magazine, executive director of the Skeptics Society and host of the Skeptics Lecture Series at Caltech. He has written several books, including How We Believe: Science, Skepticism and the Search for God and Why Darwin Matters: The Case Against Intelligent Design. He is based in Altadena, Calif., and can discuss the tenacity of creationism. Contact: email@example.com, 626-794-3119.
- Richard E. Lenski: Richard E. Lenski is the Hannah Distinguished Professor in the department of microbiology and molecular genetics at Michigan State University and the president of the Society for the Study of Evolution. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 517-884-5397.
- John G. West: John G. West is associate director of the Center for Science & Culture at Discovery Institute in Seattle and author of Darwin Day in America: How Our Politics and Culture Have Been Dehumanized in the Name of Science. He contributed an opinion piece about the Louisiana Science Education Act to the National Review. He has a special interest in Lewis and co-edited The C.S. Lewis Readers' Encyclopedia (Zondervan, 1998). Contact: email@example.com, 206-292-0401 ext. 110.
- Thomas Woodward: Thomas Woodward is a professor of missions, evangelism and science at Trinity College of Florida in Trinity, Fla., and the author of Doubts About Darwin: A History of Intelligent Design and Darwin Strikes Back: Defending the Science of Intelligent Design (2006). Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Michael Zimmerman: Michael Zimmerman is dean of the College of Letters and Science at the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh and the founder and director of The Clergy Letter Project. In 2004, he organized a letter-writing effort among Wisconsin clergy to ask Grantsburg, Wis., school officials to keep evolution at the center of the district's science education. The district had earlier agreed to include alternative theories to be taught, but then reversed itself. About 200 clergy from Baptist, Catholic, Episcopal, Lutheran, Methodist and other churches wrote letters to school administrators asking them not to single out evolution for "special scrutiny." The campaign turned into the nationwide campaign known as The Clergy Letter Project which has collected over 10,000 signatures. Contact: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, 920-424-1210.
- John Calvert: John Calvert is managing director of Intelligent Design Network. He is a lawyer whose legal practice has focused on constitutional requirements for teaching origins science in public schools. He was actively involved in the science education debate in his home state of Kansas, as well as in Ohio, Georgia, California, Missouri, Minnesota, North Carolina, West Virginia, Montana and New Mexico. He is the co-author of "Intelligent Design: The Scientific Alternative to Evolution" (National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly, autumn 2003). Contact: 913-268-0852..
- Phillip Johnson: Phillip Johnson is a retired professor of law at the University of California, Berkeley, where he now currently resides. After converting to Christianity, Johnson wrote two books on evolution and naturalistic philosophy for the general reader, one of which is Darwin on Trial (InterVarsity Press, 1993), which is largely credited as founding the idea of intelligent design. Contact: email@example.com, 510-642-5370.
- Lawrence Lerner: Lawrence Lerner is a professor emeritus of physics and astronomy at California State University-Long Beach. He is the author of the Fordham Foundation's report on science education in the United States, "Good Science, Bad Science: Teaching Evolution in the States," and has served as a consultant on science education standards. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 562-985-4924.
- Ronald Numbers: Ronald Numbers is a professor of the history of science and medicine at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. He is author of several works on Darwinism, creationism and the conflict between science and Christianity, including The Creationists: The Evolution of Scientific Creationism (University of California Press, 1993). Contact: email@example.com, 608-262-3701.
- Anne Tweed: Anne Tweed is a high school science educator at Cherry Creek School District in Colorado and past-president of the National Science Teachers Association. She published many articles articles and co-authored several books, such as Designing Effective Science Instruction: What Works in Science Classrooms. She is based in Aurora, Colo. Contact: 303-632-5528.
- William Grassie: William Grassie is executive director of the Metanexus Institute, an organization that seeks to promote dialogue between the fields of religion and science. He said that within the current debate there is a need to distinguish between the "what" and "when" of evolution, which he said is well supported by scientific evidence, as opposed to the "how" and "why", which is another, open matter. He also said the ID camp included many Young Earth creationists, and that hurt the chance of ID being taken seriously by unconvinced scientists. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 215-789-2200.
- Charles Harper: Planetary scientist Charles Harper is former senior vice president and executive director of the John Templeton Foundation. He is co-editor of Science & Ultimate Reality: Quantum Theory, Cosmology and Complexity (Cambridge University Press, 2004). Contact: email@example.com, 610-941-5194.
- Francisco J. Ayala: Francisco J. Ayala is professor of biological sciences and of philosophy at the University of California, Irvine. His research focuses on population and evolutionary genetics and the interface between religion and science. He was part of a roundtable discussion on religion and evolution as part of the PBS series Evolution in which he stated there was no conflict between Catholicism and Darwinism. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 949-824-6006.
- Mustafa Akyol: Mustafa Akyol is a Turkish author, journalist and political commentator. He is a noted supporter of intelligent design. Contact: email@example.com.
- Jennifer Wiseman: Jennifer Wiseman is an astronomer and director of the Dialogue on Science, Ethics and Religion for the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She is a NASA astrophysicist, where she is the senior project scientist for the Hubble Space Telescope and studies the formation of stars and planets. Her Dialogue on Science, Ethics and Religion program published a book, The Evolution Dialogues (2006), that examines evolution and the Christian response. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, 202-326-6618, 202-326-6431.
- Barbara Forrest: Barbara Forrest is a noted secular humanist and a professor of philosophy at Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond, La., and co-author of Creationism's Trojan Horse: The Wedge of Intelligent Design. (Read the first chapter, posted at TalkReason.org.) She says the debate over intelligent design and evolution is necessarily a religious, and not a scientific one because intelligent design is a religious, not a scientific, belief. She continues that because intelligent design is an essentially religious viewpoint, it therefore draws in constitutional questions relating to the separation of church and state, making it a legal debate as well. She has said that since their defeat in Dover, intelligent design proponents are reframing their attack on evolution by refraining from insisting that intelligent design be taught and instead asking that the strengths and flaws of evolution be taught. She cites the title of the new Discovery Institute science textbook, Explore Evolution, as an example of this new strategy. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 985-549-2109.
In the Northeast
- Laurie Godfrey: Laurie Godfrey is an anthropology professor at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. She and Andrew Petto are co-editors of Scientists Confront Intelligent Design and Creationism. Contact: email@example.com, 413-545-2064.
- David Sloan Wilson: David Sloan Wilson is an evolutionary biologist at Binghamton University of the State University of New York who has written and spoken extensively about evolution and human behaviors, including altruism, gossip and decision-making in groups. He co-wrote Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior (Harvard University, 1998). He has written several books on evolution including Evolution for Everyone: How Darwin's Theory Can Change the Way We Think About Our Lives (2007). Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 607-777-4393.
- Robin Collins: Robin Collins is a philosophy professor at Messiah College, an evangelical Christian school in Grantham, Pa. He has written several articles and papers about intelligent design. Contact: email@example.com.
- Karl Giberson: Karl Giberson serves as Scholar-in-Residence in science and religion at Stonehill College in Easton, Mass. He has written or co-written a number of books, including Worlds Apart: The Unholy War Between Science and Religion; Species of Origins: America's Search for a Creation Story; Oracles of Science: Celebrity Scientists Versus God and Religion; and Saving Darwin: How to Be a Christian and Believe in Evolution. He is critical of intelligent design theory, charging that it is a religious belief because the "intelligence" referred to is always God. Giberson has lectured on science and religion at Oxford University and the Vatican, as well as many American universities and colleges. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, 505-565-1275.
- John Jefferson Davis: John Jefferson Davis is a professor of systematic theology and Christian ethics at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in South Hamilton, Mass. He has expertise in world religions, theology, homosexuality, abortion, medical ethics, just war, bioethics, environmental ethics, intelligent design, business ethics and biblical ethics. He teaches a course titled "Christian Ethics: Issues Facing the Church Today." Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 978-646-4141.
- Anne Clifford: Anne Clifford is a Catholic nun and associate professor of theology at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Penn. She says what is needed in the debate is not the replacement of natural science with theistic science, but a dialogue between scientists and theologians. Contact: email@example.com, 412-396-6530.
- Mark McPeek: Mark McPeek is the David T. McLaughlin Distinguished Professor of Biological Sciences at Dartmouth College in Lebanon, N.H. He conducted a symposium titled “Darwinian Evolution Across the Disciplines.” Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 603-646-2389.
- Jon Roberts: Jon Roberts is the Tomorrow Foundation Professor of History at Boston University. He participated in a panel on intelligent design and evolution at Arizona State University in 2006. Contact: email@example.com, 617-353-2557.
- Jay D. Wexler: Jay D. Wexler is a professor of law at Boston University School of Law, where he teaches law and religion. He has written extensively on the evolution-intelligent design conflict in the public schools. He has predicted the next legislative battleground will not be about teaching intelligent design, but about states and localities trying to get schools to teach “arguments against evolution,” which he has said will be a more difficult legal battle than the one against intelligent design. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 617-353-2789.
- Philip Kitcher: Philip Kitcher is a philosophy professor at Columbia University in New York City. In 2006, he delivered a public lecture titled “Darwin, Design and the Future of Faith” at the university. Contact: email@example.com, 212-854-4884.
- Hudson Kern Reeve: Hudson Kern Reeve is a professor at Cornell University's department of neurology and behavior. At a panel discussion on evolution and intelligent design in 2006, he delivered a rebuttal to a speech given by Discovery Institute fellow Cornelius Hunter, another panelist. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 607-254-4352.
In the South
- Donald Musser: Donald Musser is a senior professor of religious studies and has served as the chairman of the Stetson Center for Science, Nature and the Sacred at Stetson University in Deland, Fla. One of his specialties is religion and culture. He co-edited War or Words?: Interreligious Dialogue as an Instrument of Peace. Contact: email@example.com, 386-822-8934.
- John W. Oller Jr.: John W. Oller Jr. is a professor of communicative disorders at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. He is on the technical advisory board of the Institute for Creation Research, which lists him as a “creation scientist.” Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 337-962-4649.
- Todd C. Wood: Todd C. Wood is an associate professor of natural sciences in the Center for Origins Research at Bryan College, Tenn. He is listed by the Institute of Creation Research as a “creation scientist.” Contact: email@example.com, 423-775-7277.
- Raymond Bohlin: Raymond Bohlin is a biologist and vice president of vision outreach with Probe Ministries of Richardson, Texas. He is the co-author of The Natural Limits to Biological Change. He is listed as a creation scientist by the Institute for Creation Research. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 972-941-4562.
- Walter Bradley: Walter Bradley is an engineering professor at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, and an advocate of creationism and intelligent design. Contact: Walter_Bradley@baylor.edu, 254-710-7370.
- Michael Ruse: Michael Ruse is a professor of philosophy at Florida State University in Tallahassee and author of Can a Darwinian be a Christian? The Relationship Between Science and Religion (Cambridge University Press, 2004). He says evolution belongs in the science classroom while intelligent design can be taken up in the context of current affairs or history. In his book, The Evolution-Creation Struggle (Harvard University Press, May 2005), he wrote that while intelligent design is infused with religion, some Darwinians have made evolution their religion by pushing it as a kind of secular humanism. Contact: email@example.com, 850-644-7248.
- John Angus Campbell: John Angus Campbell is a retired professor and director of graduate studies in the Department of Communication at the University of Memphis and a fellow at the Discovery Institute and of the International Society for Complexity, Information and Design, a society dedicated to the promotion of Intelligent Design. He is co-editor of Darwinism, Design and Public Education (Michigan State University Press, 2003). Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 206-292-0401 ext.107.
- Raymond Arthur Eve: Raymond Arthur Eve is a professor of sociology at the University of Texas at Arlington. He classifies the debate as more political than religious, and has data to show that people's attitudes towards intelligent design and other manifestations of creationism are strongly predicted by other social attitudes they hold, such as attitudes toward homosexuals, prayer in school, pornography, abortion, etc. He is also the co-editor of Chaos, Complexity and Sociology: Myths, Models, and Theories (Sage Publications, 1997), which examines the new science of chaos and complexity mathematics that shows how complex systems, such as the human eye, can evolve from simple mathematical rules without direct intervention by an intelligent agent. Contact: email@example.com, 817-272-2661.
- J. Budziszewski: J. Budziszewski is a professor of government and philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin and a fellow at the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture. He is the author of Evangelicals in the Public Square: Four Formative Voices on Political Thought and Action (2006), in which he suggests that evangelicals could enhance their political clout if they could learn to draw on the broader lexicon of natural law to justify their public policy proposals. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 206-292-0401 ext.107.
- Russell W. Carlson: Russell W. Carlson is a professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at the University of Georgia in Athens and a fellow of the International Society for Complexity, Information and Design. He has been criticized by some of his colleagues for inviting students to after-class discussions about the religious implications of molecular biology. Contact: email@example.com, 706-542-4439.
- Richard J. Martinez: Richard J. Martinez an associate professor of management and the chair of the department of management, marketing and business at Houston Baptist University. In September 2007, he was one of several speakers at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary’s “Intelligent Design in Business Practice” conference. He says among the things participants were interested in exploring was how the central principles of intelligent design research may help people understand business processes better. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 281-649-3155.
- J. Michael Playcan: J. Michael Plavcan is an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville. He contributed a chapter titled “The Invisible Bible: The Logic of Creation Science” to Scientists Confront Intelligent Design and Creationism. He says there are two separate issues in the conflict – the first is an attempt to undermine evolutionary biology in public schools, and the second is that, as a result of fear of controversy, evolutionary biology is being quietly avoided or mistaught with disturbing frequency. Contact: email@example.com.
In the Midwest
- S. Brian Stratton: S. Brian Stratton is the chairman of the religious studies program and a professor of religious studies and philosophy at Alma College in Alma, Mich. He has been affiliated with the Metanexus Institute. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 989-463-7291.
- Gayle Woloschak: Gayle Woloschak is a molecular biologist and a professor of radiology at Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill. She is director of "The Epic of Creation," a lecture series that approaches the origins of the Earth through both scientific and religious perspectives, at the Zygon Center for Religion and Science at the Lutheran School of Theology in Chicago. Contact: email@example.com, 773-256-0670.
- Donald DeYoung: Donald DeYoung is chairman of the science and mathematics department at Grace College in Winona Lake, Ind. He has lectured on astronomy and creation and the biblical flood for the Creation Research Society. Contact: DBDeYoung@Grace.edu, 574-372-5100 ext. 6441.
- Alvin Plantinga: Alvin Plantinga is John A. O'Brien Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame. He is the author of "The Dawkins Confusion: Naturalism ad absurdum," a review of Richard Dawkins' The God Delusion in the March/April 2007 issue of Books & Culture. He has written several articles about faith and science He has written several articles about faith and science and has supported intelligent design. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 574-631-6254.
- Steve Rissing: Steve Rissing is a professor at Ohio State University's department of evolution, ecology and organismal biology. He has been active on behalf of school board candidates who support the teaching of evolution and science museums that accept evolution as the foundation for modern biology. Contact: email@example.com, 614-688-4989.
- David Buchanan: David Buchanan is an animal sciences professor and geneticist at North Dakota State University in Fargo, S.D. He has taught a course titled “Creation, Evolution and Intelligent Design” at his church. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 701-231-7426.
In the West
- Kevin Anderson: Kevin Anderson is director of the Van Andel Creation Research Center, an extension of the Creation Research Society, in Chino Valley, Ariz. Contact: email@example.com, 928-636-1153.
- Michael Keas: Michael Keas is an adjunct faculty member at Biola University, a Christian school in La Mirada, Calif. He is a senior fellow at the Center for Science & Culture at the Discovery Institute and is the primary author of the auxiliary materials for its textbook, Explore Evolution. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Johanna Schmitt: Johanna Schmitt is a professor of evolution and ecology at the University of California, Davis. She previously served as as president of the Society for the Study of Evolution. Contact: email@example.com.
- Matt Young: Matt Young is the co-author of Why Intelligent Design Fails: A Scientific Critique of the New Creationism (Rutgers University Press, 2004). He teaches physics at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colo. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 303-273-3862.
- Paul Chien: Paul Chien is a professor of biology at the University of San Francisco, a Jesuit university, and a senior fellow at the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture. Contact: email@example.com, 206-292-0401 ext.107.
- John Mark Reynolds: John Mark Reynolds is an associate professor of philosophy at Biola University, a Christian university, in La Mirada, Calif., where he is also the founder and director of the Torrey Honors Institute. He is also a fellow at the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Richard Weikart: Richard Weikart is an associate professor of history at California State University, Stanislaus in Stanislaus, Calif., and a fellow at the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture. He has lectured on the subject "Does Darwinism Devalue Human Life?" Contact: email@example.com, 206-292-0401 ext.107.
- Dr. Robert Eckel: Dr. Robert Eckel is a professor of medicine at the University of Colorado's Health Sciences Center in Denver. He is on the technical advisory board of the Institute for Creation Research, which lists him as a “creation scientist.” Contact: Robert.Eckel@UCDenver.edu, 303-724-3921.
- Barry Ritchie: Barry Ritchie is the vice provost for academic personnel as well as a professor in the department of physics at Arizona State University. He moderated a panel on intelligent design and evolution at the school in 2006. Contact: 480-965-4707.
- Holmes Rolston III: Holmes Rolston III is a University Distinguished Professor in the department of philosophy at Colorado State University in Fort Collins. He has received the Templeton Prize and the Mendel Medal, both of which recognize achievement in science and religion. He participated in a panel on intelligent design and evolution at Arizona State University in 2006. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 970-491-6315.
- David DeWolf: David DeWolf is a professor of law at Gonzaga University School of Law in Spokane, Wash. He is a fellow of the Discovery Institute and co-author of its Intelligent Design in Public School Science Curricula: A Legal Guidebook (Foundation for Thought and Ethics, 1999). He wrote an opinion piece (see above) for the June 11, 2007, Boston Globe in which he defended the right of academics to question evolution. Contact: email@example.com, 509-323-3767.
- Scott Minnich: Scott Minnich is an associate professor in the school of food science at the University of Idaho in Boise and a fellow at Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture. He is a co-author of Explore Evolution: The Arguments For and Against Neo-Darwinism (2007). He testified on behalf of the defendants in Kitzmiller v. Dover. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 208-885-7884.
- Kevin Padian: Kevin Padian is an evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Berkeley, where he operates the Padian Lab. Padian testified for the plaintiffs in the Dover case. Contact: email@example.com, 510-642-7434.
- Leslie Wickman: Leslie Wickman is director of the Center for Research in Science at Azusa Pacific University, a Christian university in Azusa, Calif. She has delivered a public lecture titled “Science and the Bible” that examined creation and modern science. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 626-815-6480.
Related source guides
- Evolution debates in legislatures and on campaign trails
- The physics of creation
- Science v. faith: Is the battle diminishing?